Students began the year developing number concepts by observing their world. Now, students begin to develop spatial reasoning and geometric concepts by experiencing flat and solid shapes in their world. This module examines how shapes and objects are similar to or different from one another with respect to orientation and relative positions to objects. In Lesson 1, students use the informal language of their everyday world to name and describe flat shapes without yet using mathematical concepts and the vocabulary of geometry. They are not yet able to consistently distinguish between examples and non-examples of different groups of shapes such as triangles, circles, squares, rectangles, or hexagons. At this stage, a figure is a square because it looks like a book; another figure is a circle because it is round like the wheel of a car. Students make these observations without explicitly thinking about the attributes or properties of squares or circles. In Lesson 2, students build on their experiential learning by the mathematical concept and vocabulary of geometry, allowing them to enhance their experiences of shapes. They begin to classify three-sided shapes by identifying them as examples of a triangle. Using various examples and non-examples of triangles, they sort and classify different shapes as examples of a triangle or not a triangle. Having learned to identify shapes as triangles, they explain their decisions about classifying shapes as triangles and other shapes as not triangles by focusing on common attributes or properties of the shapes they have identified as triangles. Lessons 3 and 4 continue the work of Lesson 2 in the same vein by identifying shapes as rectangles, hexagons, and circles. In Lesson 5, students communicate about the relative position of shapes by using terms such as above, below, next to, beside, in front of, and behind.

## Kindergarten Mathematics Module 2, Topic A

## Downloadable Resources

## Common Core Learning Standards

CCLS | State Standard |
---|---|

K.G.1 | Describe objects in the environment using names of shapes, and describe the relative positions of... |

K.G.2 | Correctly name shapes regardless of their orientations or overall size. |

K.G.4 | Analyze and compare two- and three-dimensional shapes, in different sizes and orientations, using... |